The monograph provides a information of new studies in the superhard abrasives, lists physical-mechanical characteristics of diamond grits synthesized in the various growth system and abrasive composites based on cBN micron powders structured by carbon binder. Showing the technological and energy-related aspects of allowing for and ensuring of structural orientation in the working layer of superabrasive wheels. Provides information about composites based on cBN micron powders structured by carbon binder for the application as bearing elements in the working layer of wheels. Summarizes new research on the structurally changed layer of superabrasive wheel and workpiece contact surfaces as a factor of improving their wear resistance. Shows the role of superabrasive grinding wheels in the machine tool system and restrictions by the rigidity criterion. Are new approaches to selecting the composition of process liquids as a non-coventional means of implicit polarization in diamond grinding. Shown the influence of various grinding wheel characteristics and machining conditions on the workpiece surface roughness. Shows the influence of plasma on surface modification process and thermal action on the structure and phase composition of cutting-tool composites. Intended for scientific and technical engineering technical workers in the creation, production and application of abrasive superhard materials for processing instrumental and composite materials in mechanical engineering, as well as for teachers, postgraduates and students institutions of higher education.