The book considers scientifically grounded methods for the preparation and purification of graphite intercalated compounds (GICs) and expanded graphite (EG) by oxidation and thermal processing of natural graphite. The results of investigations of structural features of GICs and EG are presented. The basic methods of formation of solid materials from EG powder, their physic-chemical and electro physical characteristics, field, of use are analyzed. The main methods of obtaining modified forms of EGs for their adsorption characteristics and applications are also considered. The physic-chemical bases of formation of nanocomposite materials EG-carbon and polymer-EG, the results of research of their microstructure and its influence on physical-mechanical, physical-chemical, electro physical and other properties of composites, including percolation effects, are described. Possible ways of practical use of the obtained materials are offered. The monograph is intended for students, masters, postgraduates, teachers and researchers in the field of physical and chemical material science, physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, surface physico-chemistry, materials of carbon graphite materials.