Error message

Deprecated function: The each() function is deprecated. This message will be suppressed on further calls in _menu_load_objects() (line 579 of /home/akademperiodykao/public_html/includes/

Control of fuel combustion in small and medium power boilers

Zaporozhets A.O.
Babak V.P.
Publication Language: 
PH "Akademperiodyka"
Place Published: 
Book Type: 

Th e monograph deals with the problems of increasing the effi ciency of fuel combustion and reducing emissions of harmful substances in boilers with a capacity of up to 3.5 MW. Approaches for the formation of stoichiometric air-fuel mixtures in boilers are developed. Th e method for indirect determination of the concentration of air components was developed, which allows to increase the metrological characteristics of gas-analyzing devices. Methods, algorithms and programs to automate the combustion control process, while ensuring the reliability of the data, are created. A system for monitoring the fuel combustion process was developed, and it was implemented on the basis of the NIISTU-5 boiler unit.

For researchers, engineers, as well as lecturers and postgraduates of higher educational institutions and scientifi c institutions, working in the fi eld of engineering and optimization in the energy.


1. Bailera M., Lisbona P., Romeo L.M. Power to gas-oxyfuel boiler hybrid systems. Int. J. Of Hydrog. Energy. 2015. Vol. 40, pp. 10168-10175.

2. Scherbakov V.S., Ruppel A.A., Glushets V.A. Fundamentals of modeling automatic control systems and electrical equipment in the environment of MATLAB and SIMULINK. Omsk: SibADI, 2003. 160 p.

3. Brettschneider J. Berechnung des Lufverhältnisses λ von Luf-Krafstoff-Gemischen und des Einflusses von Meßfehlern auf λ. Bosch Technische Berichte. 1979. No. 6, pp. 177-186.

4. Tchaikovskaya E.S. Development of energy-saving technology to support the functioning of the biodiesel installation in the cogeneration system. East. European J. of Adv. Tech. 2015. Vol. 79, No. 8, pp. 4-10.

5. Lupiáñez C., Diez L.I., Romeo L.M. NO emissions from anthracite oxy-fring in a fluidized-bed combustor: Effect of the temperature, limestone, and O2. Energy and Fuels. 2013. Vol. 27, pp. 7619-7627.

6. Nochvai V.M. Te method of controlling the oxygen consumption of burners on the flow of flame radiation during the combustion of propane-butane. J. of ZhSTU. 2012. Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 48-52.

7. Patent No. 110916 Ukraine. Portable gas analyzer Publ. 25.02.2016 [in Ukrainian].

8. Eremenko V.S., Mokoychuk V.M. Te universal method of identifcation of the law of sampling distribution. Information processing systems. 2013. Vol. 110, No. 3, pp. 38-40.

9. Katsoulis B.D. Te relationship between synoptic, mesoscale and microscale meteorological parameters during poor air quality events in Athens, Greece. Sci Total Environ. 1996. Vol. 181, No. 1, pp. 13-24.

10. Klanova J., Eupr P., Kohoutek J., Harner T. Assessing the Influence of Meteorological Parameters on the Performance of Polyurethane Foam-Based Passive Air Samplers. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2007. Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 550-555.

11. Chepel V.M., Shur I.A. Combustion of gases in the furnaces of boilers and furnaces and maintenance of the gas facilities of enterprises. Leningrad: Nedra, 1980. 591 p.

12. Bazooyar B., Shariati A., Hashemabadi S.H. Characterization and reduction of NO during the combustion of biodiesel in a semi-industrial boiler. Energy and Fuels. 2015. Vol. 29, pp. 6804-6814.

13. Ning F.-H., Wang K., Zhang H.-Q., Cheng K., Ning F.-H. Method for designing and calculating a boiler flue gas waste heat recovery system and its applications. J. Eng. For Termal Energy and Power. 2016. Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 745-749.

14. Valentyuk M.R. Intelligent information technology in the tasks of improving hydro-meteorological systems. East European J. of Adv. Tech. 2013. No. 3, pp. 50-54.

15. Babak V.P., Nazarenko O.O. Optimization of combustion processes in boilers, depending on the quality of natural gas with using α-probes. Problems of industrial heat engineering: materials VIIІ Int. Conf. (October 8-11, 2013). Kyiv, 2013. 43 p.

16. Patent No. 102512 Ukraine. Quality control system for combustion. Publ. 11.10.2015 [in Ukrainian].

17. Demchenko V.G. Intensifcation of heat transfer in the furnaces of boilers. Kyiv, 2012. 236 p.

18. Kucheruk V.Yu. Classifcation and analysis of methods of assessment of the condition of electric machines. Measuring and computing technology in technological processes. 1999. No. 4, pp. 56-62.

19. Patent No. 101842 Ukraine. Control system of fuel combustion quality in boiler units. Publ. 10.12.2015 [in Ukrainian].

20. Kucheruk V.Yu., Dudat'ev I.A. Review of methods of control of the flue gas composition of boiler plants. Collection of scientifc works ODATRA. 2013. Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 50-58.

21. Novikov O.N., Artamonov D.G., Shkarovsky A.L., Kochergin M.A., Okatiev A.N. Energy-ecological optimization of fuel combustion in boilers and furnaces by regulating the fuel-air ratio. Industrial energy. 2000. No. 5, pp. 57-60.

22. Zaporozhets A.O., Eremenko V.S., Serhiienko R.V., Ivanov S.A. Development of an intelligent system for diagnosing the technical condition of the heat power equipment. 2018 IEEE 13th Int. Sci. and Technical conf. on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (CSIT) (11-14 September 2018, Lviv, Ukraine). Lviv, 2018, pp. 48-51.

23. Lipatnikov G.A., Guzeev M.S. Automatic regulation of heat power facilities. Vladivostok: Far Eastern State Technical University, 2007. 136 p.

24. Buderus Handbuch fuer Heizungstechnik. Berlin-Wien-Zuerich: Beut Verlag GmbH, 1994.

25. Carroll J.P., Finnan J.M., Biedermann F., Brunner T., Obernberger I., Carroll J.P. Air staging to reduce emissions from energy crop combustion in small scale applications. Fuel. 2015. Vol. 155, pp. 37-43.

26. Chen K., Zhang J., Che D., Chen K. Effect of separated over-fre air on combustion performance of a 3 MW pilot scale facility. Applied Termal Engineering. 2016. Vol. 108,pp. 30-40.

27. Patent No. 107644 Ukraine. Method of automatic control of combustion process in boiler units Publ. 26.01.2015 [in Ukrainian].

28. Shkarovsky A.L., Novikov O.N., Okatiev A.N. Energy-ecological principles of fuel combustion process control. Sensors and systems. 2002. No.10, pp. 41-44.

29. Patent No. 110761 Ukraine. A method of determining the coefcient of excess air. Publ. 10.02.2016 [in Ukrainian].

30. Da Silva Pereira E.J., Pinho J.T., Galhardo M.A.B., Macêdo W.N. Methodology of risk analysis by Monte Carlo Method applied to power generation with renewable energy. Renewable Energy. 2014. Vol. 69, pp. 347-355.

31. On Approving the Procedure for Conversion of Payment for the Supply of District Heating Services, Cold and Hot Water Supply and Drainage in the case of failure to provide them or not providing them in full, quality reduction: Resolution No. 151 as of February 17, 2010. Ofcial Bulletin of Ukraine. 2010. No. 12. 114 p.

32. Redko O.O., Zaporozhets A.O., Mokiychuk V.M. Te research of an alternative method of measuring the concentration of oxygen in the air. Abstracts of the IX Int. Sci. Conf. Integrated Intelligent Robot Technical Complexes (May 17-18, 2016). 2016, pp. 136-138.

33. Edge P.J., Heggs P.J., Pourkashanian M., Stephenson P.L., Williams A. A reduced order fullplant model for oxyfuel combustion. Fuel. 2012. Vol. 101, pp. 234-243.

34. Going W., Hao B., Mansy S.S., Gonzalez G., Gilles-Gonzalez M.A., Chan M.K. Structure of a biological oxygen sensor: A new mechanism for heme-driven signal transduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998. Vol. 95, pp. 15177-15182.

35. Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. World Meteorological Organization, 2008. No.8. 119 p.

36. Hong R., Shen Y., Zhao Z. Emission characteristics of CO and NOx from opposed firing boiler in a 600 MW supercritical unit. Dongli Gongcheng Xuebao. J. Chinese Society of Power Engineering. 2012. Vol. 32, pp. 922-927.

37. Zaporozhets A.O., Redko O.O., Babak V.P., Eremenko V.S., Mokiychuk V.M. Method of indirect measurement of oxygen concentration in the air. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu. 2018. No. 5, pp. 105-114.

38. Babak V.P., Babak S.V., Eremenko V.S. et al. Teoretical foundations of information-measuring systems. Kyiv, 2014. 832 p.

39. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.O., Nazarenko O.O. Increasing the efciency of fuel com bustion in boilers up to 3.5 MW with using α-probe. Problems of the resource and safety of operation of structures, structures and machines: Collection of scientifc articles. Kyiv, 2015, pp. 391-407.

40. Dolinsky A.A., Khalatov A.A., Kobzar S.G., Nazarenko O.A., Meshcheryakov A.A. Te use of computer simulation for low-cost modernization of the boiler NIISTU-5. Industrial heat engineering. 2007. Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 80-91.

41. Fedorov A.F., Kuzmenko E.A. Chemical process control systems. Tomsk: Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2009. 217 p.

42. Zaporozhets A.A. Control of the process of burning fuel in boilers using oxygen probes. Problems of resource- and energy-saving technologies in industry and agribusiness: Int. scientifc and technical conf., September 23-26, 2014. Ivanovo, 2014, pp. 436-439.

43. Dolinsky A.A. Energy-saving and ecological problems of energy. Bulletin of the NAS of Ukraine. 2006. No. 2, pp. 24-32.

44. On Introduction of New Investment Opportunities, Guaranteeing the Rights and Legal Interests of Entities for Entrepreneurship for Large-Scale Energy Modernization: Law of Ukraine on date 01.08.2016. Ofcial Bulletin of Ukraine. 2015. No. 37, 57 p.

45. Dolinsky A.A., Basok B.I., Chaika O.I., Bazeev E.T. Te Concept (project) of the State Scientifc and Technical Program "Complex Modernization of Municipal Heat". Bulletin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2007. No. 7, pp. 22-27.

46. Volikov A.N., Novikov A.N., Novikov O.N., Okatiev A.N. Improving the efciency of fuel combustion in boiler units. Energonadzor-inform. 2010. Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 54-57.

47. Patent No. 111568 Ukraine. Method of calibration of gas analyzer. Publ. 10.05.2016 [in Ukrainian].

48. Zaporozhets A.A. Automatic control system by boiler draf systems using a probe alpha indicator. Science and the world. 2014. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 168-170.

49. Plis A.I., Slivina N.A. MathCad: Mathematical Workshop for Economists and Engineers. M.: Finance and Statistics, 1999. 656 p.

50. Zaporozhets A.O., Bilan T.R. (Eds). Teoretical and applied bases of economic, ecological and technological functioning of energy objects. Kyiv, 2017. 312 p.

51. Dolinsky A.A., Basok B.I. Targets of the draf National Strategy of Ukraine Settlements Heat Supply. Part 1. Initial conditions for strategy development, main priorities, innovative development of the heat supply sector. Industrial heat engineering. 2014. Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 54-69.

52. Kouprianov V.I. Applications of a cost-based method of excess air optimization for the improvement of thermal efciency and environmental performance of steam boilers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2005. Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 474-498.

53. Kouprianov V.I., Tanetsakuntana V. Optimization of excess air for the improvement of environmental performance of a 150 MW boiler fired with Thai lignite. Applied Energy. 2003. Vol. 74, No. 3-4, pp. 445-453.

54. Houshfar E., Skreiberg O., Lovast T., Todorovich D., Sorum L. Effect of excess air ratio and temperature on NOx emission from grate combustion of biomass in the staged air combustion scenario. Energy Fuels. 2011. Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 4643-4654.

55. Zaporozhets A. Development of Sofware for Fuel Combustion Control System Based on Frequency Regulator. Proceedings of the 15th Int. Conf. on ICT in Education, Re search and Industrial Applications. Integration, Harmonization and Knowledge Transfer. Vol. I: Main Conf. (June 12-15. Kherson, Ukraine, 2019). [eds.: V. Ermolayev, F. Mallet, V. Yakovyna, H.C. Mayr, A. Spivakovsky], CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2387, pp. 223-230.

56. Krzywanski J., Nowak W. Artifcial intelligence treatment of SO2 emissions from CFBC in air and oxygen-enriched conditions. J. Energy Engineering. 2015. Vol. 142, No. 1.

57. Li Z., Liu C., Zhang X., Zeng L., Zhen Z. Numerical simulation of bituminous coal combustion in a fullscale tinyoil ignition burner: Influence of excess air ratio. Frontiers in Energy. 2012. Vol. 6, pp. 296-303.58. Frizorenko A.O., Bozhko S.I. Te energy balance of Ukraine: from theory to practice. Teory and methodology of statistics. 2013. No. 2, pp. 16-21.

59. Zaporozhets A.A. Method for determining the coefcient of excess air, taking into account climatic variability. Metrology and metrological support 2015 (collection of reports): XXV National Sci. Symp. with int. participation (September 7-11. Sozopol, 2015). 2015, pp. 338-342.

60. Zaporozhets A. Methods and Hardware for Diagnosing Termal Power Equipment Based on Smart Grid Technology. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing III. 2019. Vol. 871, pp. 476-489.

61. Quintero-Marquez A., Bernard C., Zoulalian A., Rogaume Y. Improving the operation of an automatic wood chip boiler by optimizing CO emissions. Energy and Fuels. 2014. Vol. 28, pp. 2152-2159.

62. Silvis W.M. Te Algorithmic Structure of the Air.Fuel Ratio Calculation. Readout. 1997. No. 15, pp. 17-24.

63. Simons W. Berechnungen zur Bestimmung der Lufzahl bei Ottomotoren. Motortechnische Zietschrif. 1985. No. 46, pp. 257-259.

64. Zaporozhets A.A. Combustion control system based on broadband oxygen probe. Measuring and computing technology in technological processes: Proceedings of the XIV Int. Sci. Conf. (June 5-10. Odesa, 2015). 2015, pp. 68-70.

65. Zaporozhets A.A. Automation of quality control of gas combustion in boilers with using a thermocatalytic α-probe. Actual problems of fundamental and applied sciences in the modern information society: Proceedings of the 56th sci. conf. of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology: All-Russian Sci. Conf. Aeromechanics and flying mechanics. Moscow, 2013, pp. 13.

66. Alabovsky A.N., Konstantinov S.M., Neduzhyi I.A. Heat engineering: [textbook for students of technological universities of light industry]. Kyiv, 1986. 255 p.

67. Luo W., Wang Q., Guo J., Liu Z., Zheng C. Exergy-based control strategy selection for fluegas recycle in oxy-fuel combustion plant. Fuel. 2015. Vol. 161, pp. 87-96.

68. Glukhov A.P. Influence of the coefcient of excess air on heat loss with flue gases. Energy-saving. Energy Audit. 2013. Vol. 115, No. 9, pp. 12-15.

69. Corman T., Leiserson C., Rivest R., Stein K. Algorithms: construction and analysis. I.D. Williams, 2013. 1328 p.

70. Zaporozhets A.O. Model of a combustion control system for an optimal air-fuel ratio. Measuring and computing technology in technological processes: Proceedings of the XV Int. Sci. Conf. (September 14-18. Odesa, 2015). 2015, pp. 46.

71. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.A. Research of a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture of combustible and explosive hydrocarbons. Sci. reports of the NTM. 2014. Vol. 150, No. 1, pp. 90-94.

72. Babak V.P., Babak S.V., Beregun V.S., Bogachev I.V., Garmash O.V., Krasilnikov O.I., Eremenko V.S., Kuts Yu.V., Polybiuk T.A., Shcherbak L.M. Information support for monitoring of thermal power objects. Kyiv, 2015. 512 p.

73. Zaporozhets A.A. Research of a stoichiometric mixture of "air-fuel" alkanes to optimize the combustion process in heat units. Second All-Ukrainian sci. and tech. conf. of students, graduate students and young students "Young people: science and innovation" (December 2-3. Dnipropetrovsk, 2014). 2014. Vol. 12, pp. 12-13.

74. Liu H., Chaney J., Li J., Sun C. Control of NOx emissions of a domestic.small-scale biomass pellet boiler by air staging. Fuel. 2013. Vol. 103, pp. 792-798.

75. Kaya D., Eyidogan M. Energy conservation opportunities in an industrial boiler system. J. Energy Engineering. 2010. Vol. 136. pp. 18-25.

76. Sokolov B.A. Boiler plants and their operation: textbook for the beginning professional education. Moscow, 2007. 432 p.

77. Redko O.O., Zaporozhets A.O. Approaches for estimating the coefcients of a secon - d-order polynomial calibration characteristic. Integrated Intelligent Robotic Systems: Abstracts of the 8th Int. Sci. and Practical Conf. (May 18-19. Kyiv, 2015, National Aviation University). 2016, pp. 128-130.

78. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.O., Redko O.O. Increasing the accuracy of measuring the excess air coefcient in boilers using electrochemical type gas analyzers. Industrial heat engineering. 2015. Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 82-96.

79. Liu X.J., Hou G.L., Yin C. An energy-saving control for combined cycle power plant by supervisory predictive scheme. Paper presented at the 2007 European Control Conf. 2007, pp. 2991-2998.

80. Kobzar A.I. Applied mathematical statistics (for engineers and scientists). Moscow, 2006. 816 p.

81. Zaporozhets A. Analysis of control system of fuel combustion in boilers with oxygen sensor. Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering. 2019. Vol. 64. No. 4, pp. 241-248.

82. Kovrigo Yu.M., Fomenko B.V., Polishchuk I.A. Mathematical modeling of automatic control systems taking into account restrictions on control in the MatLab package. Automation. Electrical complexes and systems. 2007. No. 2, pp. 21-28.

83. Kang Y., Lu X., Wang Q., Ji X., Miao S., Zong C., Luo G., Liu H. An experimental and modeling study of NOx and CO emission behaviors of dimethyl ether (DME) in a boiler furnace. Fuel Processing Technology. 2014. Vol. 122, pp. 129-140.

84. Babak V.P. (Ed.). Provision of Diagnostic Systems for Energy Facilities. Kyiv, 2018. 134 p.

85. Kozubovsky V.R. Optical devices for gas analysis for air pollution control (review). Scientifc Bulletin of Uzhgorod University. Ser.: Physics. 2009. Vol. 26, pp. 61-87.

86. Zaporozhets A.O. Te system of quality control of fuel combustion in boilers with a capacity to 3.5 MW. Problems of Modern Energy and Automation in the System of Nature Management: Abstracts of the Int. Sci. Conf. (April 15-20. Kyiv, 2014). 2014, pp. 71-72.

87. Stepanov D.V., Korzhenko E.S., Bodnar L.A. Boiler installations of industrial enterprises: a textbook. Vinnitsa, 2011. 120 p.

88. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.O. Te quality system of combustion of air-fuel mixture in boilers of low and medium power. Methods and devices of quality control. 2014. Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 106-114.

89. Isserlin A.S. Fundamentals of burning gas fuel: a reference manual. Leningrad, 1987. 336 p.

90. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.A., Redko A.A. Influence of meteorological parameters on the optimization of the combustion process. Scientifc proceedings of the NTM. 2015. Vol. 165, No. 2, pp. 361-364.

91. Igumentseva N.V., Pakhomov V.I. Statistical analysis of the results of the experiment and observations. Kharkov, 2005. 236 p.

92. Zaporozhets A.O. Investigation of stoichiometric "air-fuel" ratio of organic compounds. Part 1. Alkanes. Science-based technologies. 2014. No. 2. Vol. 22, pp. 163-167. https://

93. Zaporozhets A.O. Investigation of stoichiometric "air-fuel" ratio of organic compo unds. Part 2. Alkenes, alkynes. Science-based technologies. 2014. No. 4. Vol. 24, pp. 393-399.

94. Babak V.P., Nazarenko O.O., Zaporozhets A.O. Digital alpha indicator of air-fuel mixture control based on zirconium oxygen probe. Industrial heat engineering. 2014. Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 70-77.

95. Ponomarev A.A. Model of a fuel-air path of a heat-energy boiler of an object of regulation. Collection of scientifc works of NSTU. 2010. Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 19-28.

96. Babak V.P., Zaporozhets A.A., Redko A.A. Experimental studies of changes in the volume concentration of oxygen in air and its effect on the combustion process. V.P. Babak, Scientifc proceedings of the NTM. 2016. Vol. 187, No. 1, pp. 81-84.

97. Zaporozhets A.O. Optimization of the combustion process of natural gas in boilers using a digital probe alpha indicator. Energy, energy saving at the beginning of the XXI century: Abstracts of the all-Ukrainian sci.-pract. conf. of young scientists, specialists, graduate students. 2014, pp. 83.

98. Zakharov I.P. Analysis of numerical methods for estimating measurement uncertainty. Bulletin of the National Technical University "Kharkov Polytechnic Institute". Series: Computer Science and Modeling. 2006. Vol. 40, pp. 96-100.

99. Barsky V.A., Frishman A.E., Lysenko A.Yu. Adaptive control system for draf engines of boiler units ECO-3. Electrical and energy systems. 2012. No. 3, pp. 199-201.

100. Zaporozhets A.O. Digital alpha-indicator of air-fuel mixture control of low and mediumpower boilers. Modern devices, materials and technologies for non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics of machine-building and oil and gas equipment: Abstracts of the 7th Int. Sci. Conf. (Ivano-Frankivsk). 2015, pp. 53-58.

101. Zaporozhets A.O. Extreme regulation of the air-fuel ratio in low and medium capacity boilers. Measuring and computing technology in technological processes: Proceedings of the XIV Int. Sci. Conf. (10-14.09.2015, Odesa). 2015, 43 p.

102. Bedienungsanleitung ECOM® KD. Kreative Technikausdem Hauserbr. rbrMesstechnik GmbH, 2007, pp. 41-43.

103. Redko O.O., Eremenko V.S., Mokiychuk V.M. Algorithm and sofware of data processing of system of statistical diagnostics of composite materials. Quality control methods and instruments. 2013. Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 20-25.

104. Skorobogatova I.V., Nezhmakov S.V., Gavrilenko B.V. Ways to improve fuel efciency when solving automatic control problems. Scientifc works of DonNTU. 2011. Vol. 183, No. 21, pp. 48-54.

105. Zaporozhets A., Serhiienko R., Ivanov S. Methods of Quality Control of Energy Efcient Characteristics of Biofuels and its Combustion. Int. J. "NDT Days". 2018. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 222-227.

106. Zaporozhets A., Serhiienko R., Ivanov S. Means of quality control of biofuels, their production and combustion. Boichenko S. (Ed.) Selected aspects of providing the chemmotological reliability of the engineering. Кyiv, 2019, pp. 126-140.

107. Hrdlička J., Polák M. Te validation of a calculation model for biomass combustion using CO2 measurement. Int. J. of Green Energy. 2015. Vol. 12, pp. 603-609.

108. Ma L., Fang Q., Tan P., Zhang C., Chen G., Lu D., Duan X., Chen Y. Effect of the separated overfre air location on the combustion optimization and NOx reduction of a 600 MWe FW down-fred utility boiler with a novel combustion system. Applied Energy. 2016. Vol. 180, pp. 104-115.

109. Lozhechnikov V.F., Mikhailenko V.S., Maksimenko I.N. Analytical multi-mode mathematical model of the dynamics of the gas-air duct of a drum boiler of medium power. Electrical complexes and systems. 2007. No. 2, pp. 29-33.

110. Lucas V.A. Teory of control of technical systems. A compact training course for universities. Yekaterinburg, 2002. 675 p.

111. Dolinsky A.A., Basok B.I., Bazeev E.T. State target program (project) for modernization of municipal heat power for 2010-2014. Bulletin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2009. No. 10, pp. 3-11.

112. Babak V.P., Beregun V.S., Burova Z.A., Vorobyov L.Y., Decusha L.V., Dekusha O.L., Zaporozhets A.O., Kovtun S.I., Krasilnikov O.I., Nazarenko O.O., Polobyuk T.A. Hardware and sofware for monitoring of objects of generation, transportation and consumption of thermal energy. Kyiv, 2016. 298 p.

113. Akhmedov R.B., Tsirulnikov L.M. Te technology of burning combustible gases and liquid fuels. Leningrad, 1984. 238 p.