For the first time all information on chemical, physical, and biological properties of water and its numerous unique anomalies have been generalized. The issues of ecological and hygienic state of the sources of centralized drinking water supply have been brought to limelight. For the first time a new approach has been proposed to creating new standards for drinking water without analogies in the world. The materials, which present a comprehensive approach, developed by A.V. Dumanskii Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry to the assessment of the safety of drinking waters — biotesting, have been generalized.