This is the first Ukrainian scientific-popular book on the life and creative path of S.M. Vinogradsky, a world-famous Ukrainian scientist, discoverer of chemosynthesis in a large group of soil microorganisms and the role of the latter in fixing the atmosphere of nitrogen and the cycle of substances in nature, one of the founders of general and soil microbiology and ecology. The book contains a bibliography of his printed works and a list of the main publications about the scientist. The publication is illustrated with photos and portraits of the scientist and his closest students - D.K. Zabolotny and V.L. Omelyansky The book is intended for a wide range of readers who are interested in the history of natural science and the contribution of Ukrainian scientists to the treasury of knowledge of world science.