The monograph covers the history of the V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of the NAS of Ukraine, its development, scientific schools, international relations, applied directions of work and prospects of development. Attention is focused on six scientific schools of the Institute: semiconductor physics, theory of semiconductor physics, radio spectroscopy, semiconductor surface physics, optics and semiconductor spectroscopy and optoelectronics. Information on each school, chronology of their formation and activity, scientific achievements, information on teacher-student relations, cooperation with higher education institutions, individual representatives of schools and selected works are given. For researchers, students of higher education institutions majoring in “Semiconductor Physics and Optics”, historians of science and social development.