Physico-technological aspects of degradation of silicon nicrowave diodes

Editors: 
A.E. Belyaev, N.S. Boltovets, E.F. Venger, Ya.Ya. Kudryk, V.V. Milenin, G.V. Milenin
Year: 
2011
Pages: 
182
ISBN: 
978-966-360-176-2
Publication Language: 
English
Publisher: 
PH "Akademperiodyka"
Place Published: 
Kyiv
The monograph deals with the physical phenomena occurring in the metal-semi- conductor junction layer and at microwave diode breakdown, as well as methodology of the catastrophe theory when predicting failures for silicon diodes and transistors. The methods of measurements of the parameters of ohmic and barrier contacts, as well as degradation mechanisms in silicon microwave diodes related to the physico-chemical and structural properties of metal-semiconductor interfaces, quality of the initial semi­conductor material and p-n junction perfection, are considered. The experimental data on the techniques of defect gettering in microwave diode structures, in particular, the low-tempcrature and non-heating gettering processes that improve the parameters of semiconductor devices, are presented.
The monograph is intended for researchers and those engaged in development of microwave devices. It may be of use also to post-graduates and under-graduates special­izing in the corresponding areas.
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Chapter 3

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5. R. Haase, Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Dover Publications, New York, 1990.

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10. V.I. Fistul. Decomposition of Supersaturated Semiconductor Solid Solutions, Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1977.*

11. V.I. Strikha, E.V. Buzaneva. Physical Foundations of the Metal−Semiconductor Contact Reliability in Integrated Electronics, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1987.*

12. F.S. Shishiyanu. Diffusion and Degradation in Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Shtiintsa, Kishinev, 1978.*

13. R.V. Konakova, P. Kordoš, Yu.A. Tkhorik, V.I. Faynberg, F. Štofanik. Reliability Prediction for the Semiconductor Avalanche Diodes. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986.

14. Yu.A. Tkhorik, L.S. Khazan. Plastic Deformation and Misfit Dislocations in Heteroepitaxial Systems, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1983.*

15. K.A. Baliev, V.N. Dyagilev, V.I. Lebedev, A.V. Lubashevskii. Micropower ICs, Sovetskoe Radio, Moscow, 1975.*

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18. V.M. Bardin. Reliability of Semiconductor Power Devices, Energiya, Moscow, 1978.*

19. O.A. Kuznetsov, A.I. Pogalov, V.S. Sergeev. Strength of the Elements of Microelectronic Equipment, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1990.*

20. L.G. Dubitskii. Forerunners of Failures in the Electronic Products, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1989.*

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22. G.V. Milenin. Electronnoe Modelirovanie 18(1), 59-61, 1996.*

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24. G. Nicolis, I. Prigogine. Exploring Complexity, Freeman and Co, New York, 1989.

25. V.V. Bolotin. The Methods of Probability Theory and Reliability Theory in Analysis of Structure, Stroyizdat, Moscow, 1982.*

26. J.M.T. Thompson. Instabilities and Catastrophes in Science and Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1982.

27. V.Z. Parton. Fracture Mechanics: From Theory to Practice, Gordon and Breach, Philadelphia, 1992.

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30. J.F. Knott. Fundamentals of Fracture Mechanics, John Wiley - Halsted Press, New York, 1973.

31. Yu.A. Kontsevoi, Yu.M. Litvinov, E.A. Fattakhov. Plasticity and Strength of Semiconductor Materials and Structures, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1982.*

32. V.S. Zolotarevskii. Mechanical Properties of Metals, Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1983.*

33. V.R. Regel, A.I. Slutsker, E.E. E.Tomashevskii. Kinetic Nature of Strength of Solids, Nauka, Moscow, 1974.*

34. G.M. Bartenev, Yu.V. Zelenev. Physics and Mechanics of Polymers, Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1983.*

35. I.M. Dubrovskii, B.V. Egorov, K.P. Ryaboshapka. Physics Handbook, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986.*

36. Nonlinear Effects and Kinetics of Fracture (Subject Collection of Scientific Transactions), Leningrad, 1988.*

37. G.I. Skanavi. Physics of Dielectrics. High Fields Region, GIFML, Moscow, 1958.*

38. V.S. Dmitrievskii. Calculation and Design of Electrical Insulation, Energoizdat, Moscow, 1981.*

39. G.S. Kuchinskii. Partial Discharges in High-Voltage Structures, Energiya, Leningrad, 1979.*

40. V.Ya. Ushakov. Electrical Aging and Resources of Monolithic Polymer Insulation, Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1988.*

41. А.А. Vorobiev, E.K. Zavadovskaya. Electric Strength of Solid Dielectrics, GIFML, Moscow, 1956.*

42. А.А. Vorobiev, G.A. Vorobiev. Electrical Breakdown and Disruption of Solid Dielectrics, Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1966.*

43. Yu.A. Kontsevoi, S.P. Miroshnikov, R.R. Rezvyi, V.P. Solntseva. ET Ser. 2, no 4(47), 165-177, 1969.*

44. Silicon Planar Transistors (ed. Ya.A. Fedotov), Sovetskoe Radio, Moscow, 1973.*

45. V.I. Nikishin, B.K. Petrov, V.F. Synorov, V.S. Gorokhov, V.V. Bachurin, V.V. Asessorov. Design and Manufacturing Technology for Power Microwave Transistors, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1989.*

46. V.N. Deynego, G.V. Milenin. Electronnoe Modelirovanie 16(1), 15-18, 1994.*

47. Yu.M. Poplavko. Physics of Dielectrics, Vyscha Shkola, Kiev, 1989.*

48. A.M. Nechaev, V.F. Sinkevich. ET Ser. 2, no 2(161), 45-54, 1983.*

49. A.M. Nechaev, E.A. Rubakha, V.F. Sinkevich. RE 26(8), 1773-1782, 1981.*

50. K.V. Shalimova. Physics of Semiconductors, Energiya, Moscow, 1976.*

51. I.M. Vikulin, V.I. Stafeev. Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1990.*

52. V.V. Pasynkov, L.K. Chirkin, A.D. Shinkov. Semiconductor Devices, Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow,  1981.*

Chapter 4

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4. I.V. Grekhov, Ye.N. Serezhkin. Avalanche Breakdown of the p-n Junction in Semiconductors. Energiya, Leningrad, 1980*.

5. A.S. Tager, V.M. Val'd-Perlov. Avalanche Diodes and Their Application in the UHF Technique, Sovetskoe Radio, Moscow, 1968*.

6. R.V. Konakova, Yu.S. Melnikova, E.V. Mozdor, V.I. Faynberg. FTP 22(10), 1754-1758, 1988.*

7. R.V. Konakova, Yu.S. Melnikova, E.V. Mozdor, V.I. Faynberg. Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 113, 215- 221, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2211130126

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22. T.Ya. Puritis, I.E. Ozolinya, R.Ya. Krike, Ya.P. Murans, Ya.K. Balodis. In: Physics of p-n Junctions, 383-390, Zinatne, Riga, 1966.*.

23. A.W. Garlson. Proc. IEEE 56(7), 1228-1229, 1968. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1968.6533

24. B.K. Petroff. RE 21, 2365, 1976.*

25. A.V. Kardo-Sysoev, E.A. Pasutis, I.G. Tchashnikov. FTP 10, 1486, 1976.*.

26. R.V. Konakova, V.I. Faynberg, M.Yu. Filatov. UFZh 25(9), 1563-1565, 1980.*

27. Yu.R. Nosov. Semiconductor Pulse Diodes, Sovetskoe Radio, Moscow, 1965.*

28. V.K. Aladinski, V.I. Dashin, A.S. Sushik, A.M. Timerbulator. RE 18, 342, 1973.*

29. R.V. Konakova, V.I. Faynberg, M.Yu. Filatov. PTM no 34, 41-42, 1981.*

30. V.I. Faynberg, R.V. Konakova, L.V. Scherbina, N.S. Boltovets. Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 68, 39-43, 1981. https://doi.org/10.1002/pssa.2210680105

31. R.V. Konakova, P. Kordoš, Yu.A. Tkhorik, V.I. Faynberg, F. Štofanik. Reliability Prediction for the Semiconductor Avalanche Diodes. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986.*

32. V.I. Faynberg. Author's Synopsis of the Candidate of Phys.-Math. Sci. Thesis. IP AN UkrSSR, Kiev, 1988.*

33. R.V. Konakova, V.V. Rybalka, L.V. Scherbina, I.L. Zaitsevskii. Sol. State Electron. 27(4), 381- 383, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-1101(84)90172-2

34. I.L. Zaytsevskiy, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Rybalka, L.V. Scherbina. ME 9(3), 253-258, 1980.*

35. L.V. Scherbina. Author's Synopsis of the Candidate of Tech. Sci. Thesis. IP AN UkrSSR, Kiev, 1991.*

Chapter 5

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2. V.F. Afanasovich, V.N. Vasilevskaya, N.S. Boltovets, R.V. Konakova, I.A. Mal'tseva, V.V. Rybalka, L.M. Suvorova, L.А. Khomenko. PTM no 15, 42-44, 1974.*

3. Z.A. Iskander-zadeh, Yu.G. Miller, S.G. Rzaev, E.A. Jafarov, M.R. Akhundov. Izv. AN AzSSR. Ser. Phys.-Tech. and Math. Nauk no 4, 76-83, 1977.*

4. Yu.А. Evseev, I.N. Magden, A.E. Radechko, V.Е. Chelnokov. FTP 4(8), 1432-1436, 1970.*

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6. H.F. John. Proc IEEE 55(8), 1249-1271, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1967.5827

7. W. Shockley. Sol. State Electron. 2(1), 35-67, 1961. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-1101(61)90054-5

8. V.V. Batavin. FTP 4(4), 760-763, 1970.*

9. L.G. Dubitskii. Forerunners of Failures in the Electronic Products, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1989.*

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11. C.G. Peattie, J.D. Adams, S.L. Carrell, T.D. George, M.H. Valek. Proc. IEEE 62(2), 149-168, 1974. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1974.9406

12. N.V. Bogach, V.A. Gusev, P.G. Litovchenko. PTM no 34, 3-20, 1981.*

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14. S. Prussin. Solid State Technology 19(8), 58- 60, 1975. 

15. C.J. Varker. Solid State Technology 19(8), 60-63, 1975.

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24. M.G. Milvidskii, V.B. Osvenskii. Structural Defects in Epitaxial Layers of Semiconductors, Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1985.*

25. Yu.A. Kontsevoi, Yu.M. Litvinov, E.A. Fattakhov. Plasticity and Strength of Semiconductor Materials and Structures, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1982.*

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28. N.S. Boltovets, V.N. Vasilevskaya, R.V. Konakova, L.M. Suvorova. PTM no 15, 42-45, 1973.*

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38. V.A. Marasanov, Yu.I. Pashintsev. FTP 1(8), 1214-1217, 1967.*

39. G.S. Agalarzadeh, A.I. Petrin, С.О. Izidinov. Fundamentals of Design and Processing Technology for p-n Junction Surface, Sovetskoe Radio, Moscow, 1978.*

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44. T.Ya. Puritis, I.E. Ozolinya, R.Ya. Krike, Ya.P. Murans, Ya.K. Balodis. In: Physics of p-n Junctions, 383-390, Zinatne, Riga, 1966.*

45. V.V. Batavin, G.V. Popova, L.A. Batavina. FTT 8(8), 2502-2504, 1966.*

46. J.E. Carroll. Hot Electron Microwave Generators. Edward Arnold Publ., London, 1970.

47. R.V. Konakova, P. Kordoš, Yu.A. Tkhorik, V.I. Faynberg, F. Štofanik. Reliability Prediction for the Semiconductor Avalanche Diodes. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986*.

48. Yu.A. Evseev. Semiconductor Devices for Power High-Voltage Converter Installations, Energiya, Moscow, 1978.*

49. V.Е. Chelnokov, Yu.А. Evseev. Physical Basis for Operation of Power Semiconductor Devices, Energiya, Moscow, 1973.*

50. T.W. Coolns. Proc. IEEE 57(3), 351-354, 1969. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1969.6975

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53. N.S. Boltovets, V.V. Basanets, A.M. Kurakin, E.F. Venger, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Milenin, E.A. Soloviev. In: Proc. 10th Intern. Conf. "Microwave and Telecommunication Technology", Sevastopol, 139-140, Veber, 2000.*

54. A.E. Belyaev, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Milenin, E.A. Soloviev, D.I. Voitsikhovskyi, N.S. Boltovets, V.V. Basanets, V.A. Krivutsa, V.F. Mitin. Rom. J. Inform. Sci. and Technol. 3(1), 5-15, 2000.

55. B.S. Kerner, V.V. Osipov. Autosolitons. Localized Highly Nonequilibrium Regions in the Uniform Dissipative Systems, Nauka, Moscow, 1991.*

56. V.V. Gafiychuk, B.I. Datsko, B.S. Kerner, V.V. Osipov. FTP 24(4), 724-730, 1990.*

57. V.A. Vaschenko, B.S. Kerner, V.V. Osipov, V.F. Sinkevich. FTP 24(10), 1705-1707, 1990.*

58. V.V. Gafiychuk, B.I. Datsko, B.S. Kerner, V.V. Osipov. FTP 24, 1282-1290, 1990.*

59. Physical Quantities: A Handbook (eds. I.S. Grigoriev, E.Z. Meylikhov), Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1991.*

60. Yu.K. Pozhela. Plasma and Current Instabilities in Semiconductors, Nauka, Moscow, 1977.*

61. H.A. Shafft. Proc. IEEE 55, 1272, 1967. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1967.5828

62. H. Melchior, M.J.O. Strutt. Proc. IEEE 52(4), 439-440, 1964 https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1964.2971

63. T.Ya. Puritis, E.V. Pentyush, E.A. Fonav. In: Extension of Operating Temperature Range for Semiconductor Devices, 220-228, Vyscha Shkola, Kiev, 1975.*

64. R.B. Bendere, R.P. Kalnynya, T.Ya. Puritis. Izv. AN LatvSSR. Ser. Fiz. Techn. no 3, 16-21, 1979.*

65. A.C. English, H.M. Power. Proc. IEEE ED-13, 500-501, 1966.

66. V.V. Yudin. ET Ser. 2 no 5, 77-86, 1966.* https://doi.org/10.1177/007327536600500104

67. M.G. Milvidskii, V.B. Osvenskii. Structural Defects in Semiconductor Single Crystals, Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1984.*

68. L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshits. Theory of Elasticity, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986.

69. A. Dardys, J. Kundrotas. Handbook on Physical Properties of Ge, Si, GaAs and InP. Science and Encyclopedia Publishers, Vilnius, 1994.

70. А.К. Shukhostanov. IMPATT Diodes. Physics. Technology. Application, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1997.*

71. V.D. Nazarenko, V.I. Tikhonyuk, E.I. Scheglov. ET Ser. 3 no 2 (62), 113-115, 1976.*

72. I.А. Velichkovskii. OET Ser. 1 no 17 (587), 1978.*

73. P. Staecker, W.T. Lindley, R.A. Murphy, G.P. Donnelly. In: 12th Annual Proc. Reliability Physics, 1974. Las Vegas, Nevada, 293-297, N.Y.IEEE Edit. Dept., 1974.

74. K.R. Gleason, E.D. Cohen, M.L. Bark. IEEE Trans. Parts. Hybrids and Packag. PHP-13(4), 344-348, 1977. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPHP.1977.1135220

75. H. Goronkin. Sol. State Electron. 18(10), 891-893, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-1101(75)90016-7

76. R.C. Pittetti. In: 10th Annual Proc. Reliability Physics, 1972. Las Vegas, Nevada, 171-174, N.Y., 1972.

77. S.D. Mukherjee, D.V. Morgan, M.J. Hawes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 126(6), 1047-1053, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2129172

78. T.A. Midford, R.L. Bernick. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techn. MTT-27(5), 482-492, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.1979.1129653

79. J.W. Gewartowski. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techn. MTT-27(5), 434-442, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.1979.1129645

80. M.-A. Nicolet. Thin Solid Films 52, 415-443, 1978. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(78)90184-0

81. L.А. Seidman. OET Ser. 2 no 6(1366), 1988.*

82. J.E. Sundgren. Thin Solid Films 22(2), 21-44, 1985. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(85)90333-5

83. G. Lemperiere, J.M. Poitevin. Thin Solid Films 111(2), 339-349, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(84)90326-2

84. N.S. Boltovets, V.N. Ivanov, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Milenin, D.I. Voitsikhovskii. Techn. Phys. 48(4), 441-448, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1568486

85. А.А. Rusakov. X-ray Investigation of Metals, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1977.*

86. G.V. Samsonov, K.I. Portnoi. Refractory Compound Alloys, Oborongiz, Moscow, 1961.*

87. R.B. Kotel'nikov, S.N. Bashlykov, Z.G. Galiakbarov, A.I. Kashtanov. Super-Refractory Elements and Compounds, Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1968.*

88. S.P. Murarka. Silicides for VLSI Application. Academic Press, New York−London, 1983.

89. M. Harris, E. Lugujjo, S.U. Campisano. JVST 12(1), 524-527, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.568580

90. O.M. Barabash, Yu.N. Koval. Structure and Properties of Metals and Alloys. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1986.*

91. Thin Films. Interdiffusion and Reactions (eds. J.M. Poate, K.N. Tu, W. Mayer), Wiley, 1978.

92. R.А. Andrievskii. Uspekhi Khimii 66(1), 57-77, 1997.* https://doi.org/10.1070/RC1997v066n01ABEH000290

93. R.А. Andrievskii, A.V. Ragulya. Nanostructure Materials, Academia, Moscow, 2005.*

94. J. Suni, M. Maenpaa, M.A. Nicolet, M. Luomajaw. J. Electrochem. Soc. 130(5), 1215-1218, 1983. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2119920

 

95. D.I. Voitsikhovskyi, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Milenin, E.A. Soloviev, М.Б. Tagaev, О.D. Smiyan, N.S. Boltovets, N.М. Goncharuk, V.A. Krivutsa, V.Е. Chaika. PKOM no 5, 80-84, 1999.*

96. N.S. Boltovets, D.I. Voitsikhovskyi, А.А. Belyaev, R.V. Konakova, V.V. Milenin. PZhE no 2, 29-36, 2002.*

97. V.I. Nefedov. X-ray Spectroscopy of Chemical Compounds. A Handbook. Khimiya, Moscow, 1984.*

98. S. Seal, T. Barr, K. Sobczak, E. Benko. JVST. A15(3), 505-512, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.580881

99. N.S. Boltovets, V.N. Ivanov, R.V. Konakova, A.M. Kurakin, V.V. Milenin, E.A. Soloviev, G.M. Verimeychenko. SQO 4(1), 93-105, 2001.

100. А.А. Chernyshev. The Foundations of Reliability of Semiconductor Devices and ICs, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1988.*

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104. E.S. Meieran, P.A. Flinn, J.R. Caurruthers. Proc. IEEE 75(7), 908-953, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1987.13826

105. R.M. Waldser, R.W. Benc. Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(10), 624, 1976. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.88590

106. A.E. Gershinskii, A.V. Rzhanov, E.I. Cherepov. Poverkhnost' no 2, 1-12, 1982.*

107. A.E. Gershinskii, A.V. Rzhanov, E.I. Cherepov. ME 11(2), 83-94, 1982.*

108. C. Calandra, O. Bisi, G. Ottaviani. Surface. Sci. Repts. 4(5/6), 271, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5729(85)90005-6

109. K.N. Tu. Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(4), 221, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.88436

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111. N.S. Davydova, Yu.Z. Danyushevskii. Diode Microwave Oscillators and Amplifier, Radio i Svyaz', Moscow, 1986.*

112. M. Ino, T. Makimura, T. Ishibashi, M. Ohmori. Electron. Lett. 115(1), 2-3, 1979.

113. Yu.Z. Danyushevskii. In: Heat Exchange in Electronic Devices, no 4, 3-15, SGU, Saratov, 1976.*

114. K. Chino, Y. Wada. Japan. J. Phys. 13(11), 1675-1677, 1974. https://doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.13.1675

115. K. Chino, Y. Wada, K. Fukuda. J. Jap. Soc. Appl. Phys. 44, Suppl. 1, 149-156, 1975.

116. M.Yu. Filatov. Candidate of Tech. Sci. Thesis, IP AN UkrSSR, Kiev, 1989.*

117. N.S. Boltovets, V.V. Basanets, V.N. Ivanov, V.A. Krivutsa, A.E. Belyaev, R.V. Konakova, V.G. Lyapin, V.V. Milenin, E.A. Soloviev, E.F. Venger, D.I. Voitsikhovskyi. SQO 3(3), 359-370, 2000.

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121. А.Т. Baich. ZRE no 6, 142-148, 1971.*

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123. E.A. Burgemeister. Physica B 93(2), 165-179, 1978. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4363(78)90123-7

124. Physical Properties of Diamonds: A Handbook (ed. N.V. Novikov), Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1987.*

125. А.К. Shukhostanov, Т.Kh. Akhmetov, S.I. Volkov, A.M. Schekikhachev. OET Ser. 2 no 5, 1990.*

126. A. Rosen, Ho Pang-Ting, J.B. Klatskin. IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 24(2), 159-163, 1977. https://doi.org/10.1109/T-ED.1977.18698

127. L.К. Lyubimova. OET Ser. 2 no 3, 1977.*

128. L.А. Kandidova, S.V. Nosikov, M.Yu. Filatov. ET Ser. 1 no 1 (337), 56-59, 1982.*

129. О.P. Gludkin. ET Ser. 1 no 2, 59-62, 1977.* https://doi.org/10.1080/10889377709388614

130. I.V. Baydalinov. OET Ser. 3 no 1 (174), 1970.*

131. N.V. Rumak, V.V. Khat'ko. Dielectric Films in Solid-State Microelectronics, Navuka i Tekhnika, Minsk, 1990.*

132. V.N. Vertoprakhov, B.М. Kuchumov, Е.G. Sal'man. Composition and Properties of the Si−SiO2 Structures, Nauka SO, Novosibirsk, 1981.*

133. R.А. Muminov, V.Т. Malaeva, S. Rajanov, U. Sirozhov, B. Sapaev, О.М. Tursunkulov. Poverkhnost' no 9, 76-80, 1999.*

134. A.I. Kurnosov. OET Ser. 7 no 13 (292), 1971.* https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(71)90241-1

135. V.K. Severnyi, E.I. Minsker, I.А. Makarenko, N.V. Varlamova, V.A. Semenova. Obmen Opytom v Radiopromyshlennosti no 5, С.20, 1984.*

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Chapter 6

1. А.Ya. Potemkin, I.E. Satsevich. Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Physical Properties of Silicon, ONTI GIREDMET, Moscow, 1962.*

2. V.G. Litovchenko. Gettering. In: Physics of Solid. An Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1, 173-174, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1996.*

3. V.N. Mordkovich. ET Ser. 2 no 5 (123), 6 (124), 211-221, 1978.* https://doi.org/10.5771/0943-7444-1978-2-123

4. E.I. Verkhovskii. OET Ser. 2 no 8 (838), 1981.*

5. G.Z. Nemtsov, A.I. Pekarev, Yu.D. Chistyakov, A.N. Burmistrov. ZET no 11, 3-63, 1981.*

6. N.V. Bogach, V.A. Gusev, P.G. Litovchenko. PTM no 34, 3-20, 1981.*

7. V.A. Labunov, I.L. Baranov, V.P. Bondarenko, A.M. Dorofeev. ZET no 11, 3-66, 1983.*

8. N.N. Peresvetov, A.V. Veber, L.А. Petrov. ET Ser. 2 no 10 (102), 80-87, 1975.*

9. K. Nauka, J. Lagowski, H.C. Gatos, O. Ueda. J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 615-621, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.337457

10. O. Ueda, K. Nauka, J. Lagowski, H.C. Gatos. J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 622-626, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.337458

11. V.M. Anischuk, V.A. Gorushko, V.A. Pilipenko, V.N. Ponomar, V.V. Ponaryadov. Physical Basis of Rapid Thermal Treatment. Gettering, Annealing of Ion-Implanted Layers, RTA in the VLSI  Technology, BGU, Minsk, 2001.*

12. V.A. Pilipenko. Rapid Thermal Treatments in the VLSI Technology, BGU, Minsk, 2004.*

13. K.V. Ravy. Defects and Impurities in Semiconducting Silicon, Wiley, New York, 1981.

14. G.А. Zelikman, Е.Z. Mazel, F.P. Press, S.V. Fronk. Semiconductor Silicon Diodes and Triodes, Energiya, Moscow, 1963.*

15. Yu.N. Taran, V.Z. Kutsova. In: High-Frequency Metallic and Semiconducting Materials. Proc. 8th Intern. Symposium "High-Frequency Metallic and Semiconducting Materials", 68-73, NTK MN, Kharkov, 2002.*

16. R.М. Amalskaya, N.Т. Bagraev, L.Е. Klyachkin, V.L. Sukhanov. FTP 26(26), 1004-1007, 1992.*

17. V.F. Strukov, S.S. Khromov, V.I. Astakhov. ME 21(2), 91-93, 1992.*

18. S.P. Novosyadlyi. Tekhnologiya i Konstruirovanie v Elektronnoi Apparature no 2, 39, 1998.*

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Conclusion

1. N. Gerasimenko, Yu. Parkhomenko. Silicon - The Material for Nanoelectronics, Tekhnosfera, Moscow, 2007.*

2. V. Yudintsev. Electronics: Science. Technology. Business no 3, 124-129, 2008; no 4, 108-113, 2008.*