The life and creative path of the outstanding mathematician and physicist-theorist Academician M.M. Bogolyubov is shown. The fundamental contribution of the scientist to the formation and development of many sections of mathematics, mechanics, and physics is covered. It is proved that the new directions which he started and developed in the fields of differential equations, nonlinear mechanics, mathematical physics, theories of superfluidity, superconductivity, quantum field theory, and high energy physics are relevant for today's science. His role in the creation of new scientific institutions, laboratories, departments is covered. Examples of scientific schools created by him are given. The book will be of great interest to researchers, teachers, students, anyone interested in modern science and its history.